Archive for June, 2008


This Silence is Called Great Joy

A new teaching by Thich Nhat Hanh on the truth beyond our usual truths.

There are two kinds of truth, conventional truth and absolute truth,
but they are not opposites. They are part of a continuum. There is a
classic Buddhist gatha:

All formations are impermanent.

They are subject to birth and death.

But remove the notions of birth and death,

and this silence is called great joy.

This beautiful poem has only twenty-six words, but it sums up all of
the Buddha’s teaching. It is one of greatest poems of humanity. If you
are a composer, please put it to music and make it into a song. The
last two lines should sound like thundering silence, the silencing of
all speculation, of all philosophies, of all notions and ideas.

The gatha begins in the realm of conventional truth and ends in the
realm of absolute truth. The first line describes reality as we usually
perceive it. “All formations are impermanent.” This is something
concrete that we notice as soon as we start paying attention. The five
elements that make up our sense of personhood—form, feelings,
perceptions, mental formations, consciousness—all are flowing and
changing day and night. We can feel their impermanence and so we are
tempted to say that the first two lines of this gatha are true.

But the danger of this statement is that we may believe that formations
are real and impermanence is an absolute truth. And we may use that
kind of truth as a weapon in order to fight against those who don’t
agree with our ideas. “Formations” is a notion, an idea. “Impermanence”
is another notion. Neither is more true than the other. When you say,
“All formations are impermanent,” you are indirectly confirming their
permanence. When you confirm the existence of something, you are also
implying the existence of its opposite. When you say the right exists,
you have to accept the existence of the left. When you confirm that
something is “high,” you’re saying something else is “low.”
Impermanence becomes a notion that opposes the notion of permanence. So
though perhaps it tried to escape, the first two lines of the gatha are
still in the realm of conventional, relative truth.

To reach the absolute truth, the ultimate truth, you need to release
the conventional truth found there. There’s a Chinese term that means
halfway truths and another that means all-the-way, hitting-the-bottom
truths. The first two lines are a halfway truth and the third and
fourth lines try to remove what we learned in the first two.

When the notions are removed, then the perfect silence, the extinction
of all notions, the destruction of all pairs of opposites, is called
great joy. That is the teaching of absolute truth, of nirvana. What
does nirvana mean? It is absolute happiness. It’s not a place you can
go; it’s a fruit that you can have wherever you are. It’s already
inside us. The wave doesn’t have to seek out the water. Water is what
the wave has to realize as her own foundation of being.

If you have come from a Jewish or Christian background, you may like to
compare the idea of nirvana, great bliss, with the idea of God. Because
our idea of God may be only that, an idea. We have to overcome the idea
in order to really touch God as a reality. Nirvana can also be merely
the idea of nirvana. Buddha also can be just an idea. But it’s not the
idea that we need; we need the ultimate reality.

The first two lines of the gatha dwell in the realm of opposites: birth
and death; permanence and impermanence; being and nonbeing. In God, in
nirvana, opposites no longer exist. If you say God exists, that’s
wrong. If you say God doesn’t exist, that’s equally wrong. Because God
cannot be described in terms of being and nonbeing. To be or not to be,
that is not the question. The notions of being and nonbeing are
obstacles that you have to remove in order for ultimate reality to

In classical Chinese, the third line of the gatha literally says, “But
when both birth and death die.” What does it mean by “death dying”? It
means you have to kill your notions of birth and death. As someone who
practices the way of the Buddha, you have the sword of the Bodhisattva
Manjushri, which is sharp enough to remove wrong perceptions and cut
through all notions, including those of birth and death.

The true practitioner understands real rebirth, real continuation.
There are two views concerning life after death. Quite a number of
people, including scientists, believe that after we die, there’ll be
nothing left. From being we become non-being. They don’t believe that
there is something that continues after you die. That view is called
nihilism. In this view, either there is no soul or the soul completely
dies. After death, our body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations,
and consciousness are completely gone. The opposite view, eternalism,
is that after we die, we are still here and we will continue forever.
Our soul is immortal. While our physical body may die, our soul
continues forever, whether in paradise or in hell. The Buddha called
these two views just another pair of opposites.

Before you can answer the question, “What will happen to me after I
die?” you need to answer another question, “What is happening to me in
the present moment?” Examining this question is the essence of
meditation. If we don’t know how to look deeply to what is happening to
us in the here and the now, how can we know what will happen to us when
we are dead?

When we look at a candle, we say that the candle is radiating light,
heat, and fragrance. The light is one kind of energy it emits, the heat
is another, and the fragrance is a third kind of energy it can offer us
in the here and the now. If we are truly alive, we can see that we
aren’t very different from the candle. We are offering our insight, our
breath, our views right now. Every moment you have a view, whether
about yourself, the world, or how to be happy, and you emit that view.
You produce thought and your thought carries your views. You are
continued by your views and your thinking. Those are the children you
give birth to every moment. And that is your true continuation.

So it is crucial to look deeply at your thoughts and your views. What
are you holding on to? Whether you are an artist or a businessperson, a
parent or a teacher, you have your views about how to live your life,
how to help other people, how to make your country prosperous, and so
on. When you are attached to these views, to the idea of right and
wrong, then you may be get caught. When your thinking is caught in
these views, then you create misunderstanding, anger, and violence.
That is what you are becoming in this very moment.

When you are mindful of this and can look deeply, you can produce
thoughts that are full of love and understanding. You can make yourself
and the world around you suffer less.

You are not static. You are the life that you are becoming. Because “to
be” means to be something: happy, unhappy, light or heavy, sky or
earth. We have to learn to see being as becoming. The quality of your
being depends on the object of your being. That is why when you hear
Rene Descartes’ famous statement “I think, therefore I am,” you have to
ask, “You are what?” Of course you are your own thinking—and your
happiness or your sorrow depends very much on the quality of your
thinking. So you are your view, you are your thinking, you are your
speech, you are your action, and these things are your continuation.
You are becoming now, you are being reborn now in every second. You
don’t need to come to death in order to be reborn. You are reborn in
every moment; you have to see your continuation in the here and the

I don’t care at all what happens to me when I die. That’s why I have a
lot of time to care about what is happening to me in the here and the
now. When I walk, I want to enjoy every step I take. I want freedom and
peace and joy in every step. So joy and peace and lightness are what I
produce in that moment. I have inherited it and I pass it on to other
people. If someone sees me walking this way and decides to walk
mindfully for him or herself, then I am reborn in him or in her right
away—that’s my continuation. That’s what is happening to me in the here
and the now. And if I know what is happening to me in the here and the
now, I don’t need to ask the question, “What will happen to me after
this body disintegrates?” There is no “before” and “after,” just as
there is no birth and death. We can be free of these notions in this
very moment, filled with the great joyful silence of all that is.


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