12
Jun
06

Bodhidharma on the twofold entrance to the Tao


There are many ways to enter the Path, but briefly speaking they are of two sorts only. The one is "Entrance by Reason" and the other "Entrance by Conduct". By "Entrance by Reason" we mean the realization of the spirit of Buddhism by the aid of the scriptural teaching. We then come to have a deep faith in the True Nature which is the same in all sentient beings. The reason why it does not manifest itself is due to the overwrapping of external objects and false thoughts. When a man, abandoning the false and embracing the true, in singleness of thought practises the Pi-kuan ["Wall-gazing"] he finds that there is neither self nor other, that the masses and the worthies are of one essence, and he firmly holds on to this belief and never moves away therefrom. He will not then be a slave to words, for he is in silent communion with the Reason itself, free from conceptual discrimination; he is serene and not-acting. This is called "Entrance by Reason".

By "Entrance by Conduct" is meant the four acts in which all other acts are included. What are the four? 1. To know how to requite hatred; 2. To be obedient to karma; 3. Not to crave anything; and 4. To be in accord with the Dharma.
1. What is meant by "How to requite hatred"? He who disciplines himself in the Path should think thus when he has to struggle with adverse conditions: "During the innumerable past ages I have wandered through a multiplicity of existences, all the while giving myself to unimportant details of life at the expense of essentials, and thus creating infinite occasions for hate, ill-will, and wrongdoing. While no violations have been committed in this life, the fruits of evil deeds in the past are to be gathered now. Neither gods nor men can foretell what is coming upon me. I will submit myself willingly and patiently to all the ills that befall me, and I will never bemoan or complain. The Sutra teaches me not to worry over ills that may happen to me. Why? Because when things are surveyed by a higher intelligence, the foundation of causation is reached." When this thought is awakened in a man, he will be in accord with the Reason because he makes the best use of hatred and turns it into the service in his advance towards the Path. This is called the "way to requite hatred".
2. By "being obedient to karma" is meant this: There is no self (atman) in whatever beings are produced by the interplay of karmaic conditions; the pleasure and pain I suffer are also the results of my previous action. If I am rewarded with fortune, honour, etc., this is the outcome of my past deeds which by reason of causation affect my present life. When the force of karma is exhausted, the result I am enjoying now will disappear; what is then the use of being joyful over it? Gain or loss, let me accept the karma as it brings to me the one or the other; the Mind itself knows neither increase nor decrease. The wind of pleasure [and pain] will not stir me, for I am silently in harmony with the Path. Therefore this is called "being obedient to karma".
3. By "not craving (ch’iu) anything" is meant this: Men of the world, in eternal confusion, are attached everywhere to one thing or another, which is called craving. The wise however understand the truth and are not like the ignorant. Their minds abide serenely in the uncreated while the body moves about in accordance with the laws of causation. All things are empty and there is nothing desirable to seek after. Where there is the merit of brightness there surely lurks the demerit of darkness. This triple world where we stay altogether too long is like a house on fire; all that has a body suffers, and nobody really knows what peace is. Because the wise are thoroughly acquainted with this truth, they are never attached to things that change; their thoughts are quieted, they never crave anything. Says the Sutra: "Wherever there is a craving, there is pain; cease from craving and you are blessed." Thus we know that not to crave anything is indeed the way to the Truth. Therefore, it is taught not "to crave anything".
4. By "being in accord with the Dharma" is meant that the Reason which we call the Dharma in its
essence is pure, and that this Reason is the principle of emptiness (sunyata) in all that is manifested; it is above defilements and attachments, and there is no "self", no "other" in it. Says the Sutra: "In the Dharma there are no sentient beings, because it is free from the stain of being; in the Dharma there is no ‘self because it is free from the stain of selfhood." When the wise understand this truth and believe in it, their lives will be "in accordance with the Dharma".

As there is in the essence of the Dharma no desire to possess, the wise are ever ready to practise charity with their body, life, and property, and they never begrudge, they never know what an ill grace means. As they have a perfect understanding of the threefold nature of emptiness, they are above partiality and attachment. Only because of their will to cleanse all beings of their stains, they come among them as of them, but they are not attached to form. This is the self-benefiting phase of their lives. They, however, know also how to benefit others, and again how to glorify the truth of enlightenment. As with the virtue of charity, so with the other five virtues [of the Prajnaparamita], The wise practise the six virtues of perfection to get rid of confused thoughts, and yet there is no specific consciousness on their part that they are engaged in any meritorious deeds. This is called "being in accord with the Dharma".

http://www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/manual_zen.pdf

“二入四行”--从禅观和实践两个方面使自己达到觉悟解脱

“二入四行”是达摩禅法的基本要求。二入是理入、行入;行有四行。理入是纲,行入是目,纲举目张,二者相辅相成。

何谓理入?《四行论》说:

“夫入道多途,要而言之,不出二种:一是理入,二是行入。理入者,谓借教悟宗,深信含生凡圣,同一真性,但为客尘妄覆,不能显了。若也舍伪归真,凝住壁观,自他凡圣等一,坚住不移,更不随于文教,此即与理冥符,无有分别,寂然无为,名之理入。”(《四行论》2段)

是说达到觉悟解脱(入道)虽有多种途径,但最重要的有两种:一是理入,即通过归信和修学佛教而体悟觉悟的要旨(宗),深信自性本心(真性、佛性),本来与佛、菩萨无别,只是由于被情欲烦恼(相对于本心,被称为客尘)污染,才使它不能显现;如果能够凝心坐禅壁观,在内心断除一切情欲烦恼和自他、凡圣等差别观念,不再执着于文字,便使自己的认识与真如佛性之理相契合,达到寂然无为的解脱境地。

所谓“壁观”可以作两层含义的解释。一是如同《景德传灯录.达磨传》所说的那样:“面壁而坐”,“端坐面墙”,即坐禅时面对墙壁(不管是禅室的墙壁还是山洞的石壁),由于墙壁静止并色彩单调,容易使人入定;二是如同唐宗密《禅源诸诠集都序》卷二所解释的:“达摩以壁观教人安心,外止诸缘,内心无喘,心如墙壁,可以入道”,是说使心与外界完全隔绝,凝心入定,达到连自己呼吸也感觉不到的地步(《大安般守意经》:“气出入不尽为喘”),心如墙壁那样寂然不动,由此可达到觉悟。

“与理冥符”,使自己体悟的内容与真如实相(理)相融无间,也就是达到觉悟。东晋竺道生曾说:“以不二之悟,符不分之理,理智忘释,谓之顿悟”(陈慧达《肇论疏》引);“真理自然,悟亦冥符”(《大涅槃经集解》卷一引道生的序文)⑩。

何谓行入?“行”相对于“理”,不仅指修行,也包括在日常生活中的行为和表现。“行入”是要人通过以下的“四行”,即四个方面的修行、表现来达到觉悟解脱(入道)。

1、报怨行:在遭遇任何苦恼之时都认识到,一切今世的痛苦遭遇都是自己前生的恶业所造成的,因此不应当怨天尤人,而应“甘心忍受,都无怨诉”。有了这种认识,便“与理相应,体怨进道”。

2、随缘行:既然一切是因缘所生,众生也“缘业所转”(依前世业因轮回),没有独立不变的主体(无我)。生活中的苦乐是由内外缘分决定的,如若碰到荣誉顺心之事,应想到“是我过去宿因所感”,缘分一尽便化为无,何喜之有?“得失从缘,心无增减,喜风不动,冥顺于道”。

3、无所求行:世人皆有贪求之心,智者体悟真理,“安心无为,形随运转,万有斯空,无所愿乐”,想到久居三界,有身有求皆苦。达到此种认识,便会息灭贪求之心,“真为道行”。

4、称法行:“法”即为“性净之理”,“此理众相斯空,无染无著,无此无彼”。经曰:“法无众生,离众生垢故;法无有我,离我垢故”。如果能认识此理,就应当按照大乘佛法生活和修行、教化众生。具体来说就是修行六度:布施、持戒、忍辱、精进、禅定、般若(智慧)。所谓般若,重要是对空义和中道的体认。并提出,虽修六度,但又要做到无心,不执着行相--“不取相”,“无所行”。(《四行论》2段)

以上四行中的“理”、“道”、“法”、“性净之理”与“理入”的“理”、“真性”大体是一个意思,就是大乘般若理论所说的毕竟空、诸法实相、中道、真如、法性等,也是佛性学说中的自性、自心、心性、佛心、佛性。

这里想指出的是,《续高僧传.达摩传》所引的“称法行”,仅有“称法行,即性净之理也”一句,而关于性空的描述和修行六度的要求,则见于《楞伽师资记》和敦煌本《二入四行论》等。其中的六度,实际已包容了前三行的要求。由此可以认为,“理入”是要求在禅观中体认真如佛性,“行入”的四项是要求在日常修行、传教和生活中贯彻契合于真如实相的六度。

http://users.libero.it/seza/bodhidharma.pdf the zen teachings of bodhidharma
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