The Tsung Ching Record of the Ch’an Master Ta-Chu Hui-Hai (1)

When Master Hui-Hai arrived in Chiang-Hsi Province, he first went to pay a visit to Master Ma Tsu.
Ma Tsu asked: "Where have you come from?"

Hui-Hai answered: "I have come from Great Cloud Temple, which is in Yüeh Chou."

Ma Tsu asked: "What is your reason for coming here?"

Hui-Hai answered: "I have come to seek the Buddhadharma. "

Ma Tsu replied: "You do not regard or cultivate your own store of treasure, but, instead, you have left your home and gone wandering. However, I have nothing at all here, so how can you hope to seek the Buddhadharma in this place?"

Then Hui-Hai prostrated himself and asked:"What and where is Hui-Hai’s own treasure-store?"

Ma Tsu answered: "Just that one there who just asked this question is your own treasure-store, and it is perfect and complete for you to make use of when you attain mastery. So why on earth are you futilely seeking anything outside?" Suddenly, on hearing this, Hui-Hai attained Great Enlightenment, instantly recognizing his own Original Mind. Then he fully prostrated himself, placing his head at Ma Tsu’s feet, to show his deep and sincere gratitude. From that moment on, the Master served Ma Tsu for the next six years. Then, because his original teacher had become quite old, he returned to his own temple in Yüeh Chou to serve him. During that time, Master Hui-Hai concealed his real ability, appearing to be halting in his speech somewhat foolish, but he wrote his sastra entitled Entering the Tao of Sudden Enlightenment. Later, Hsüan Yen, his Dharma nephew, stole Hui-Hai’s sastra from the temple and took it and presented it to Ma Tsu, who, after reading it, proclaimed to his assembly, "There is now, in Yüeh Chou, a Great Pearl (Ta-Chu), whose luster radiates everywhere and who is free and has gained self-mastery with no obstacles." It came about that one monk in the assembly knew that the Master’s family name was Chu (the same sound as the word for pearl) and informed the others, who then, together, went to Yüeh Chou to pay their respects to and follow Master Hui-Hai. Thenceforth, the master was called Ta-Chu (Great Pearl).

Once Master Hui-Hai, addressing his disciples, said: "I do not understand Ch’an; and I really do not have a single Dharma that I can disclose to anyone. Therefore, it is not necessary to trouble you by having you stand here for a long time; so, everybody, please go take a rest."

During that period, gradually more and more students, wishing to learn more, came from many different places and enquired about the Dharma day after day. The Master, accordingly, answered all their questions, his power of speech being totally confident and unhindered. At one point, a company of Dharma Masters who had come to meet with Hui-Hai stated: "We have a question for you, Master. Would you please give us an answer." The Master replied: "The moon is reflected in this deep pool and can be apprehended by yourselves only."

The Dharma Masters asked: "What is the Buddha?"

The Master replied: "Just look into that clear pool right in front of you. If that is not the Buddha, who is it?"

All of them were mystified. After a long silence, one monk spoke up again, asking: "What Dharma do you speak to convert people?"

The Master replied: "I have not one single Dharma to speak to convert people."

Another monk asked: "Is this the customary method of all you Ch’an Masters?"

Immediately the Master asked: "And just what Dharma do you speak to convert people?"

The monk answered: "I expound The Diamond Sutra."

The Master asked: "And just how many times have you expounded it?"

The monk answered: "Over twenty times."

The Master asked: "And this Sutra was spoken by whom?"

The monk exclaimed: "Surely, this Ch’an Master is playing with me! Wouldn’t it be absurd not to know that the Sutra was spoken by the Buddha!"

The Master replied: "But that very Sutra states: ‘If someone says that the Tathagata expounds this Dharma, he is slandering the Buddha! Really, he does not understand at all what I am saying. On the other hand, if someone says that this Sutra is not expounded by the Buddha, he is slandering the Sutra.’ Would you please try to explain this." The monk could give no answer. Then, after awhile, the Master continued: "The Diamond Sutra says: ‘He who sees me by outward appearances and sees me in sound treads the heterodox path and cannot perceive the Tathagata.’ Would please tell me who the Tathagata is?"

The monk answered: "Now I’m completely confused!"

The Master retorted: "Never having been enlightened, how can you say you are only now confused?"

The monk asked: "Would you please explain this Dharma to me?"

The Master asked: "Since you have expounded The Diamond Sutra more than twenty times, how can you not understand who the Tathagata is?" The monk prostrated himself before the Master and asked again for an explanation.

The Master said: "’Tathagata’ means the Suchness of all Dharmas. This you should not forget!"

The monk replied: "Oh, yes! The Suchness of all Dharmas!"

The Master retorted: "You say, ‘Yes!’, but that is not correct."

The monk replied: "But it clearly says so in the Sutra, so how can you say I am not right?"

The Master asked: "Are you Suchness?"

The monk replied: "Yes, I am Suchness."

The Master asked: "Are that piece of wood and that stone Suchness?"

The monk replied: "Yes, they are Suchness too."

The Master asked: "Then is your Suchness and the Suchness of the wood and the stone the same Suchness?"

The monk replied: "Yes, they are not different."

The Master asked: "Then what is the difference between you and the wood or stone?"

The monk could not answer, and, after a short time, he sighed and said: "It is very difficult to debate with such a superior master!" Then, after a long silence, he asked: "How can the Great Nirvana be realized?"

The Master replied: "Merely by not creating any karma that binds you to the Wheel-of-Birth-and-Death."

The monk replied: "How is the karma of birth-and-death created?"

The Master replied: "To seek the Great Nirvana, to be attached to purity and to disdain impurity create the karma of birth-and-death. Also, realizing and clinging to attainments create the karma of birth-and-death. Finally, not letting go of the stage of relative thinking creates the karma of birth-and-death."

The monk asked: "How can we realize Liberation?"

The Master replied: "Since originally you have never been bound, there is no use in seeking to become unbound or liberated. If both function and action are clear and direct, then all things are equal."

The monk responded: "A Ch’an Master like you is very rare, indeed!" Then the group of Dharma Masters who had come with questions made obeisance to the Master and left.

Once an attendant of the Master asked: "If the Mind and Buddha are one, which is truly the Buddha?"

The Master answered: "Since you have doubt about what the Buddha is, can you point out what the Buddha is not?"

The attendant did not answer.

The Master said: "If you understand this completely, then everything is all right everywhere; however, if you do not understand it, then nothing is all right anywhere."

Once a Vinaya Master named Fa-Ming asked: "Do most Ch’an Masters fall into the void?"

The Master replied: "It is only you who fall into the void!" Fa-Ming, shocked, asked: "Why do you say I am the one who falls into the void?"

The Master replied: "The Sutras and the Sastras are merely words, written with ink on paper — just empty contrivances! Creating words and phrases of the Dharma based merely on something one has heard is also empty. Thus, if you grasp at and are attached to written or spoken words and phrases of the Teaching, you will, without doubt, fall into the void."

Fa-Ming then asked: "And, Ch’an Master, do you also, fall into the void?"

The Master replied: "No, I do not fall into the void."

Fa-Ming asked: "Why not?"

The Master replied: "All words and phrases (of the Dharma) are produced by Wisdom, the great function of which appears right before us. So where is there any void to fall into?"

Fa-Ming replied: "So, I assume from this that if there is someone who has not grasped the meaning of every single Dharma, then he cannot be a Hsi-Ta (Siddham)."

The Master replied: "It seems that you not only fall into the void, but you also use wrong words and terms!"

Fa-Ming’s face turned red, and he angrily asked: "Just what is my error?"

The Master replied: "If you do not even understand what Chinese word is used to express whatever Sanskrit word, how can you ever hope to expound the Dharma?"

Fa-Ming asked: "Would you please just point out my error."

The Master replied: "You do not seem to understand that ‘Hsi-Ta’, the Chinese word for the Sanskrit word ‘Siddham’ has different meanings, using the same tone."

Fa-Ming realized his error at once, but he still remained angry.

Continuing, Fa-Ming asked further: "It is said that the Sutras, the Sastras and the Vinaya were all spoken by Buddha. So if one reads, recites and practices according to the Teachings, why then can he not see his own nature?"

The Master replied: "A sane lion bites a man, but a crazy dog bites a piece of clay! The Sutras, the Sastras and the Vinaya are the functions of Self-Nature, while reading, reciting and practicing them are merely the nature of dharmas (phenomena)."

Fa-Ming asked: "Did Amitabha Buddha have parents and a family name?"

The Master replied: "Kausika was Amitabha Buddha’s family name. His father’s given name was Superior-Moon and his mother’s was Exceeding-Beauty."

Fa-Ming asked: "And from just what sutra do these facts come?"

The Master replied: "From The Collection of Dharanis."

Fa-Ming paid reverence humbly and withdrew.

Once a Tripitaka Master asked: "Does the Bhutatathata (Absolute Reality) ever change?"

The Master replied: "Yes, it does change."

The Tripitaka Master retorted: "You, Venerable Ch’an Master, are wrong!"

The Master then asked the Tripitaka Master: "Does the Bhutatathata exist or not?"

The Tripitaka Master answered: "Yes, the Bhutatathata does exist."

The Master replied: "So if you say it does not change, then you are just an ordinary, worldly monk. Doubtlessly, by now you must have heard that the lowest vices can be changed into the highest virtues, the three poisons into the three cumulative disciplines, the six consciousnesses into the six supernatural powers, all the defilements into Bodhi, and the most abysmal ignorance into the highest wisdom. Thus, if you say that the Bhutatathata does not change, then you, a Tripitaka Master, are really a heterodox-sect follower."

The Tripitaka Master responded: "If you put it that way, then I have to admit that the Bhutatathata does change."

The Master retorted: "But if you, indeed, hold that the Bhutatathata does change, that is also a heterodox view."

The Tripitaka Master asked: "Ch’an Master, you just said that the Bhutatathata does change, but now you say it does not change. How can that be?"

The Master responded: "If one sees his own nature clearly-which, like Mani-Jewels, can manifest itself in different colors-then he is correct in saying that the Bhutatathata both changes and does not change. In contrast, however, if one has not seen his own nature, he will, on hearing that the Bhutatathata changes, grasp at the idea of mutability. Also, oppositely, he will, on hearing that the Bhutatathata does not change, grasp at the idea of immutability."

The Tripitaka Master concluded: "Now I really understand what is meant when it is said that the Southern Ch’an Sect is truly unfathomable."

Once a Taoist priest asked: "Is there any Dharma that surpasses the forces of nature?"

The Master answered: "Yes, there is!"

The Taoist priest asked: "Just what is the Dharma that surpasses the forces of nature."

The Master answered: "The power of understanding that fathoms the forces of nature."

The Taoist priest asked: Does vitality constitute the Tao?"

The Master answered: "Vitality is vitality. The Tao is the Tao."

The Taoist priest asked: "If this is the case, are they two different things?"

The Master answered: Understanding does not come from two different persons."

The Taoist priest inquired further: "Then what is wrong and what is right?"

The Master responded: "When the mind is turned by external things, that is wrong; but when external things are turned by the mind, that is right."

Once a Vinaya Master came and asked: "In your practice of the Tao, do you still work hard?"

The Master answered: "Yes, I still work hard."

The Vinaya Master asked: "How hard?"

The Master retorted: "If I’m hungry, I eat. If I’m tired, I sleep. "

The Vinaya Master asked: "Do all other people work hard just as you do?"

The Master answered: "No, not in the same way."

The Vinaya Master asked: "Why not?"

The Master answered: "While they are eating, they are not really eating due to too much thinking. While they are sleeping, they are not really sleeping due to too much mental agitation. Therefore, they do not work in the same way I do."

The Vinaya Master, on hearing this, fell silent.

Once a certain Bhadanta, Yun Kuang, asked: "Do you understand the meaning of birth?"

The Master answered: "Since we do not know the meaning of death, it is useless to talk about the meaning of birth. If you really understand birth, then you know, based on the Dharma of no-birth, that everything is unborn. Also, by not holding to any Dharma of separate birth, you must conclude that during birth there is, in reality, no birth."

Bhadanta Yun Kuang asked: "If one has not yet seen his own self-nature, is he somehow lacking it or just unable to look at it?"

The Master answered: "If one has not yet become aware of his own self-nature, that does not mean he is without self-nature, because perception, as such, is that very nature. Without that nature there would be no perception. Consciousness, also, is that nature; therefore, it is called the nature of consciousness. Clear understanding, also, is that nature; therefore, it is called the nature of clear understanding. Furthermore, because it can produce all dharmas (phenomena), it is also known as the Dharma-Body. The Patriarch Asvaghosa once observed: ‘All the so-called dharmas (phenomena) are, in reality, the mind of sentient beings; for when the discriminating mind comes in to being, then various conceptions (dharmas) come to be. In contrast when the discriminating mind ceases to be, then these various conceptions, as well as their names, cease to be.’ However, deluded people do not understand this. The Dharmakaya (Dharma-Body) has no form, but it assumes different forms according to the needs of sentient beings. Thus, some say that green bamboo is the Dharmakaya and that the fragrance of yellow flowers is Prajna. If green bamboo really were the Dharmakaya, then the Dharmakaya would merely be like wood or grass. Thus, a person eating bamboo shoots could say that he was eating the Dharmakaya. If one talked like this, would there be any possible benefit for anyone in recording it? Such a person is really quite confused about the Buddha, who is right before him, as well as about his substance, which permeates all things; and so he seeks him elsewhere, outside, in error, kalpa after kalpa. Therefore, to practice the Tao correctly, one should do it while walking, standing, sitting and lying down, all the time remaining in the Tao. Finally, one becomes capable of moving always at ease in any direction or in any situation since all things are included in the Dharma."

Bhadanta Yun Kuang inquired further: "Can the Great Void create spiritual wisdom? Does Real Mind still cling to ideas of good and evil? Can a person possessing deep desire embrace the Tao? Can a person grasping ideas of right and wrong go beyond the discriminating mind? Can a person who comes into contact with and clings to his surroundings ever develop completely focused concentration? Can one who remains alone, in isolation, ever achieve wisdom? Does one who is overbearing to others really have a strong ego? Can one who grasps at concepts of existence and non-existence ever realize wisdom? Are those who depend on words to seek attainment or those who seek the Buddha in austere practices or those who hold the Buddha to be different from the mind or those who hold the mind to be Buddha really in harmony with the Tao? Please, Master, reply to each of these questions."

The Master replied: "The Great Void cannot create spiritual wisdom. Real Mind does not cling to ideas of good and evil. A person full of desire has shallow potential. Minds clinging to ideas of right and wrong are narrow and obstructed. Those who come into contact with and cling to their surroundings rarely achieve focused concentration. The overbearing person just continues his delusion of possessing a strong ego. People who grasp at ideas of existence and non-existence are merely foolish. Those who seek attainment through mere words are grasping and deluded. All those who seek Buddha through austere practices are just confused. Those who abandon their minds to seek the Buddha are nothing but demons!"

Bhadanta Yun Kuang then observed: "If it is really, as you say, like this, then there is really absolutely nothing whatsoever."

The Master responded: "No! It is just absolutely the Bhadanta, not ‘absolutely nothing whatsoever’."

On hearing this Dharma, the monk felt very happy. Then he made obeisance and withdrew.

Once the Master spoke in the Dharma hall as follows: "Very fortunate, indeed, is the person who has nothing to do! Most people working hard or behaving in an affected manner, are in reality, only bearing locked cangues about their necks and slowly sinking into hell. They are constantly on the run, day and night, announcing loudly to the world that they are practicing Ch’an, learning the Tao and spreading the Buddhadharma. If they are of this sort, there is no need to listen to them; for they are, heedlessly and ceaselessly, only following sounds, names and forms. When will they ever take a rest!?

"Once I heard Master Ma Tsu of Chiang-Hsi say: ‘Your own treasury includes everything you need. Be Free! Master yourself! There is no need to seek anything outside yourself.’ From that time on, I understood that making use of one’s own treasury and enjoying it at all times and in all places are the only true happiness. Remember, there is neither a single thing that can be grasped nor a single thing that can be rejected. Just do not view a single thing as being born or dying. Just do not view a single thing as coming or going. Then, in all ten directions throughout the universe, there will not exist even a single atom that will not belong to your own treasury. Just carefully and steadily perceive your own Mind! Then the one substance of the Precious Three permanently manifests itself. About this there is no doubt! So do not endlessly intellectualize and seek elsewhere. Originally the nature of the mind is pure and spotless. Therefore, The Avatamsaka Sutra says: ‘All dharmas are neither created nor destroyed. If one can comprehend this, then all Buddhas are permanently manifested before him.’ Also, The Vimalakirti Sutra says: ‘Observe the Body of Reality and, likewise, observe the Buddha.’ So if you do not allow a single thought to arise based on sounds, names and forms and if you do not have a discriminating mind about anything whatsoever, then you will have nothing to do. You will have no more problems. Now, don’t just stand there! Go and take good care of yourselves!"

One day the whole assembly gathered before the Master to hear him speak. Afterwards, they did not break up as usual but remained standing there in front of him.

The Master said: "Why don’t you all go take a rest. I’ve finished speaking. But if you still have some doubts or questions, you should resolve them now. Don’t allow wrong views to arise that waste your time and energy."

At that moment a monk named Fa-Yuan asked: "What is the Buddha? What is the Dharma? What is the Sangha? What is the One Substance of the Precious Three? Would you please enlighten us?"

The Master said: "The mind is the Buddha, and you should not use the Buddha to seek the Buddha. The mind is the Dharma, and you should not use the Dharma to seek the Dharma. The Buddha and the Dharma are not different, and their harmony creates the Sangha. This, then, is the substance of the Precious Three. A sutra says: ‘Mind, Buddha and sentient beings are not different from one another. When one purifies one’s own body, speech and mind, it is said that a Buddha appears in the world. In contrast, when these three become impure, a Buddha is extinguished.’ For example,when you are angry, you are not happy; and when you are happy, you are not angry. Yet there is only one mind, not two different substances. Originally, there is only Suchness; then the outflow appears while Suchness remains unchanged. It is like a snake transforming into a dragon without changing its scaly covering. Also, it is like a sentient being transforming his mind into Buddha Mind without changing his Original Nature. Thus, the Original Nature is pure and is not created by practice. If one thinks he can realize his Original Nature through practice and attainment, he is just a man filled with overweening pride. The True Void is without clinging or obstacles, is inexhaustible and is without beginning or end. Those with keen faculties and profound roots are enlightened suddenly and awakened to Anuttara-Samyak-Sambodhi. This is Supreme Enlightenment, perfect and universal. Mind without form is the Wonderful Form Body (Sambhogakaya), and formlessness is the reality of the Dharmakaya. The fundamental void substance, which is the primary nature of all forms, is as boundless as the infinite body of universal space. The Dharmakaya is adorned by ten thousand meritorious acts. Also, the Dharmakaya is the fundamental reality of all things. Names are created and applied to it expediently according to circumstances. The wisdom it possesses is inexhaustible; thus it is called the Inexhaustible Store. It generates and creates all things; thus, it is called the Fundamental Store of Dharma. It is the source of, contains, and fully endows infinite wisdom and knowledge. Thus, it is called the Store of Wisdom . Finally, because all things return to Suchness, it is called the Store of Tathagata. A sutra says: "’Tathagata’ Means the Suchness of all dharmas. Every dharma in the universe, no matter whether it is manifesting itself or going into dissolution, must ultimately return to Suchness."

Once an Upasaka asked the Master: "I am a lay-Buddhist. Would you please be kind enough to distinguish among the Vinaya Master, the Dharma Master and the Ch’an Master and tell me which one surpasses the other two?"

The Master responded: "The Vinaya Master teaches the Dharma Store of Vinaya, transmitting the essence of the Teaching as expounded by preceding masters. He understands the rules of discipline thoroughly — what is permitted, what is prohibited, who maintains, who transgresses, and who upholds the rules. Furthermore, he knows who follows the tradition and the rule of asking the Karmananda the question three times to generate the first cause of the Four Fruitions. If he were not an old master with seeds planted in his previous existence, as well as practicing much virtue and having much experience throughout his life, how could he ever reach this stage?

"The Dharma Master sits on the Lion’s Seat to spread Dharma. His power of speech is unhindered as, before the Assembly, he reveals the Three Wheels and expounds the wonderful Dharma Door of Prajna. If he did not hold a dragon’s or an elephant’s position and power, how could he ever do this?

"The Ch’an Master knows how to select what is important and how to understand directly the source of Mind. He is skillful at revealing or covering up, according to each person’s potential, the equality of the Absolute and the relative so that one might realize the Tathagata suddenly. Furthermore, by pulling out by the roots one’s clinging-vine of birth-and-death, he enables him to attain samadhi immediately. If such a Master were not deeply concentrated in meditation, then, in preaching the Dharma according to what is appropriate for the moment, he would be completely at a loss.

"Thus, although the three studies (Vinaya, Dharma and Ch’an) are different, presenting the Dharma according to the ability and circumstances of each person, nevertheless, one must come to understand the profound, wordless meaning that includes all in One Vehicle. Therefore, The Lotus Sutra says: ‘In all Buddha-Lands in the ten directions, there is only the One-Vehicle Dharma.’ There are neither two nor three except as expediently spoken by the Buddha when he uses conventional names and relative terms in order to guide sentient beings."

Then the Upasaka exclaimed: "Master, you understand the Dharma profoundly. Your powers of speech, analysis and argument are unobstructed."

Then the Upasaka asked the Master: "Are the three doctrines of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism the same or different in essence?"

The Master answered: "For one who has a great capacity for understanding they are the same, but for a person of limited potential, who clings to views, they are different. All of them arise from the one fundamental Self-Nature, but due to different potentialities and views among people, they become three doctrines. However, remember that a person remains confused or becomes enlightened based upon his own efforts, not upon whether the teachings are different or the same."

Once a Master of the Dharmalaksana (Yogacara, or Mere Consciousness) Sect asked: "Would you please, Ch’an Master, point out to me what mind you use to practice the Tao?"

The Master answered: "I have no mind to use and no Tao to practice."

The Dharmalaksana Master asked: "If there is really no mind to use and no Tao to practice, why do you always gather people together and urge them to learn Ch’an and practice the Tao?"

The Master answered: "I’m just an old monk, and I do not even have a plot of land as tiny as the point of an awl where I can gather people together. Furthermore, I do not even have a tongue, so how can I urge people to do anything whatsoever?"

The Dharmalaksana Master retorted: "Ch’an Master, you are telling me a direct lie right to my face!"

The Master asked: "How can I, without a tongue, ever tell a lie?"

The Dharmalaksana Master said: "1 really do not understand what you are saying!"

The Master replied: "I myself, also, do not understand."

Once an abbot who expounded The Avatamsaka Sutra asked the Master: "Why don’t you admit that these green bamboo shoots are the Dharmakaya and those fragrant yellow flowers are Prajna?"

The Master answered: "The Dharmakaya is formless but responds to the green bamboo shoots and, accordingly, takes shape. Likewise, Prajna is non-discriminating but responds to the yellow flowers and the green bamboo shoots and, accordingly, takes shape. However, this does not mean that the yellow flowers and the green bamboo shoots possess either Prajna or the Dharmakaya. Therefore, one sutra says: ‘The true Dharmakaya is like space, responding to things and, accordingly, taking their shapes like the reflection in the water.’ If the fragrant yellow flowers were really Prajna, then Prajna would be the same as things. If the green bamboo shoots really were the Dharmakaya, then they could not be used. However, green bamboo shoots can be used, but how do you use the Dharmakaya? Do you understand?"

The Avatamsaka Master responded: "No, I do not understand."

The Master explained: "If one has become aware of his own Nature, whether he understands or does not understand is all right; for he speaks according to the requirements of a situation and is not hindered by ideas of right or wrong. In contrast, if one has not become aware of his own Nature, then, when he speaks of green bamboo shoots, he grasps at the concept of green bamboo shoots. Similarly, when he speaks of fragrant yellow flowers, he grasps at the concept of fragrant yellow flowers. Then, when he speaks of the Dharmakaya, he grasps at the concept of the Dharmakaya, which then becomes a hindrance. Similarly, when he speaks of Prajna, he does not really have any knowledge of it. Thus, everything he says falls into dispute."

At this, the Avatamsaka Master paid reverence to the master and departed.

Once someone asked the Master: "If one practices the Dharma by just using his mind alone, when will he attain liberation?"

The Master answered: "If one practices the Dharma by using his mind alone, that is just like using mud to wash away dirt. The great functions of profound and wonderful Prajna, originally itself without birth, appear right before us without regard to any fixed time."

Again, someone asked: "Do worldly people have access to this sphere?"

The Master responded: "If one see his own Nature, he is no longer a worldly person. If one is suddenly enlightened about the Supreme Vehicle, he has transcended both the worldly and the holy stages. Only a deluded man talks about worldly and holy. The enlightened man transcends both samsara and nirvana. While the deluded man talks about action and basic principles, the enlightened man talks about the Great Function without limits. The deluded man seeks to obtain or attain something, while the enlightened man neither seeks, obtains nor attains anything whatsoever. The deluded man yearns for attainment in some distant kalpa in the future, while the enlightened man perceives the nature of all things suddenly and instantaneously."




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